Twin-Spruce: A Modern Bull-Breeding Operation from Minnesota

In the genomic era, the breeding of AI bulls has become very specialized. In North America, apart from the 4 main bull-stud programs which between them supply 40-50% of AI bulls, there are 12-15 breeders who supply significant numbers of bulls to the major AI sampling programs. Most of these are large scale operations with lots of embryo recipients, and a number are new herd prefixes to the Holstein breeding world. Here we profile one of those new names, T-Spruce from Minnesota, now with more than 40 bulls in AI.

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